It is reported from Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 139-40, number 416.‘Aa’ishah reported that she said: “O Messenger of Allah, Ibn Jud‘aan established family ties and fed the poor. Would that be of any benefit to him?” He replied, “It would be of no avail to him as he never once said: O my Lord, pardon my sins on the Day of Resurrection.”
In another hadith from Sahih Muslim, Bk 35, Number 6542:Khaula bint Hakim Sulamiyya reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: “When any one of you stays at a place, he should say:” I seek refuge in the Perfect Word of Allah from the evil of that He created.” Nothing would then do him any harm until he moves from that place. Abu Huraira reported that a person came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said:” Allah’s Messenger, I was stung by a scorpion during the night. Thereupon he said: Had you recited these words in the evening:” I seek refuge in the Perfect Word of Allah from the evil of what He created,” it would not have done any harm to you.”
Further in ‘Commentary on Ibn Qudaamah’s RADIANCE OF FAITH by Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips’, author states …Among the supplications of the Prophet (r) which he taught al-Hasan Ibn ‘Alee to pray with in qunoot of Witr was: “Wa qinee sharra maa qadayt” [Protect me from the evil which You have destined].” Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, pp. 373-4, no. 1420, and Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol. 2, pp. 199-200, no. 1178, and authenticated by Ahmad Shaakir in his footnotes on the Sunan at-Tirmithee and by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 392, no. 1425 [new ed.]. The whole text is as follows: Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alee said: Allaah’s Messenger (r) taught me some words which I say during Witr: O Allaah, guide me among those whom You guided, grant me security among those You grant security, take me into Your charge among those You have taken into Your charge, bless me in what You have given, guard me from the evil of what You have decreed, for You decree and nothing is decreed for You. Whoever You have befriended is not humbled. Our Lord, You are blessed and exalted.”
DU’AA CHANGES QADARThis phrase from the du‘aa Qunoot implies that Qadar can be changed by du‘aa and this is further strengthened by the Prophet’s statement: “Nothing increases age except righteousness and nothing repels predestination except du‘aa.” (Sunan Ibn-I-Majah, vol. 1, p. 53, no. 90, and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn-i-Maajah, no. 73) It is possible that a certain misfortune has been decreed for a person, yet, because of the sincerity and quality of his du‘aa, Allaah will repel that misfortune from him, and change this decree. Not only does du‘aa repel a future misfortune that might befall a person, it also changes and removes a current calamity and misfortune as indicated by the following hadeeth: Ibn ‘Umar quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r) as saying, “Whoever the door of du‘aa has been opened for, then all the doors of mercy have been opened for him. And nothing asked of Allaah is more pleasing to Him than that He be asked for good health. Du‘aa is of benefit to matters that have occurred and that are yet to occur. So I advise you, O servants of Allaah, to make du‘aa!” (Collected by at-Tirmithee and rated inauthentic in Da’eef at-Targheeb, no. 1013 & Da’eef al-Jaami‘, no. 5720)
On the same topic, Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned that there are three possibilities with regards to du‘aa and Qadar:
- That the du‘aa is stronger than the Qadar and it repels it permanently.
- That the Qadar is stronger and the du‘aa softens its impact.
- That they are equal in strength so they cancel out each other. (ad-Daa wad-Dawaa, p. 42)
In the book, ‘THE DIVINE PRE-DECREE & ORDAINMENT OF ALLAH by Imam Muhammad bin Saalih Al’ Uthaimeen, the author says,There are five Decrees on this level, all of which are related to Knowledge:
- First: The writing fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth, when Allaah created the Pen, this is the Eternal Decree.
- Second: The Life-time Decree, when He took the Covenant when He said to them, “Am I not your Lord?”
- Third: The Life-time Decree, when the mixed drop of male and female sexual discharge is given life inside the womb.
- Fourth: The Annual Decree, on the Night of Power (Laylatul-Qadr).
- Fifth: The Daily Decree, which is carrying out all of the above decrees at their proper times and places.
In the notes prepared on the teaching of Sheikh Waleed Basyouni, titled ‘RAYS OF FAITH – FUNDAMENTAL OF FAITHS NOTES’, It is given that decrees, i.e. Writing of al-Qadar, are in two different types of books:
1. Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh: The Safe Tablet, a.k.a Umm Al-Kitab: Mother of All Booksa. “Allâh blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)” [Quran – 13:39] b. Every single thing is written in this book. Nothing will be changed. c. Other than this book, the items in other books can be affirmed or erased.
2. The Tablets with the Angels. There are three different tablets:a. The Taqdeer ‘Umari: Covering the person’s life span. The persons livelihood, life term, deeds and his status in the Hereafter (wretched or blessed) are written while in the mothers womb at an early stage of his development. b. The Annual Taqdeer, which occurs in the night of decree (lailatul-qadar in the month of Ramadan). “Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainment.”[Quran – 44:4]. This tablet writes who is going for hajj, who is dying etc. c. Daily: Taqdeer Yawmi: Allah SWT says “Whosoever in the Heavens and the Earth asks of Him (for their needs). Everyday He has a matter to bring forth.” [Quran – 55:29] The prophet explained the above ayat, “Everyday He has a matter to bring forth“ that He may forgive a sin for someone, lifts in honor some, relief the hardship of someone, lifts in honor some and lowers some. [Ibn Maajah and Abee Aasim in As Sunnah] With regard to the effect of obedience and sin on changing the divine decree, that which is in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz can never be changed. The Prophet (SAW) said: “The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” [Narrated and classed as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi, from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas.]
Opinions about change in life span through upholding the ties of kinship and righteousness:
First Opinion:As for the pages which are in the hands of the angels, Allaah SWT may command His angels to change it because of an act of worship that a Muslim does or because of a sin that he commits, but in the end it will not be anything other than that which was decreed from eternity in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz. This is indicated by the verse in which Allaah says: “Allaah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)”[Quran – 13:39] Ibn ‘Abbas (RA) explained it this way. Scholars supporting this view point include Ibn Maswood (RA), Ibn Umar (RA), Malik ibn Dinar, Hassan al-Basri, Ibnul Qayyim and others.
Second opinion:This refers to an increase of blessing during one’s lifetime, being guided to do good deeds and to make use of one’s times in ways that will be of benefit in the Hereafter and to make the most of his time for the sake of Allah.
Third Opinion:Extension of life means the person will be mentioned even after his death. His name will be alive. As we talk about Imam Bukhari as if he is still living. Like was even though Imam Nawawi died in his thirties (30’s) his contributions are still effecting people. Again, the changes only happen in the tablets that are with the angels. And all these changes have already been written in the Safe Tablet.
ALLAH KNOWS THE BEST.