1. The Qur’aan consists of letters and words as a refutation of those who claim that the Qur’aan is actually Allaah’s eternal speech which exists as a meaning within Allaah that becomes the Qur’aan when expressed in Arabic, the Tawraah (Torah) when expressed in Hebrew, and the Injeel (Gospel) when expressed in Aramaic.Allah, the exalted, says in Quran :
“I did not teach him poetry, nor was it appropriate to do so. It is only a Reminder and a Clear Qur’aan.” (Soorah Yaaseen, (36): 29)
Ibn Qudaamah elaborated on this point in his book al-Burhaan saying, “It is well known that they meant this is an arrangement of verses, because poetry is a particular arrangement of words. The term poetry is not used to refer to a meaning or that which is not actually words. Thus, Allaah named it a Reminder (Thikr ) and a Clear Recital (Qur’aan Mubeen).” [al-Burhaan fee Bayaan al-Qur’aan, p. 27]
2. Allaah challenged the disbelievers with creating something similar to it. If it were not letters and words, the challenge would be unacceptable as a challenge is only valid if it involves something comprehensible and knowable.
Allah, Most Great and Glorious, said:
“If you are in doubt about that which I have revealed to my servant, bring another chapter similar to it and call on your witnesses besides Allah.” (Soorah al-Baqarah,(2): 23)
3. Allah says verses in Quran are His verses that which consists of letters and words which can be recited.
“When you recite for them My clear verses, those not desiring to meet Me say: ‘Bring another Qur’aan besides this or exchange it.’ Say: ‘I have no right to exchange it on my own accord.’ ” (Soorah Yunus, (10): 15)
4. Allaah has informed that the Qur’aan is memorized and guarded in the hearts of the knowledgeable and written in the Lawh al-Mahfooz. That which does not consist of letters and words cannot be memorized and written.
“Instead, they are clear signs in the hearts of those given knowledge.” (Soorah al-Ankaboot, (29): 49)
“Indeed it is a Noble Qur’aan in a well-guarded Book which only the purified can touch?” (Soorah al-Waaqi‘ah, (56): 77-79)
‘The purified’ are the The angels. Mutahhar refers to those made purified who cannot become impure. Humans are referred to as being Mutatahhir referring to those who purify themselves after having become impure, as in the du‘aa to be said on the completion of making wudoo, Allaahummaj ‘alnaa minat-tawwaabeena waj ‘alnaa minal- mutatahhireen.”
5. 29 of the Qur’aanic chapters begin with only disjointed letters (al-Huroof al-Muqatta‘ah) to emphasise that it is composed from Arabic letters and words.
“Kaaf Haa Yaa ‘Ayn Saad ” (Soorah Maryam,(16): 1)
“Haa Meem. ‘Ayn Seen Qaaf ” (Soorah ash-Shooraa,(42): 1)
6. Ibn Qudaamah rests on the unanimous opinion (Ijmaa‘) of Muslims that one who denies a chapter, verse, word or letter that is unanimously agreed upon becomes a disbeliever.
Allah also informed us about His speech in following verses of The Holy Quran –
“Falsehood cannot approach it from the front or behind. It was revealed by the Wise, the Praised.” (Soorah Fussilat, (41): 42) “If one of the pagans seeks refuge with you, give him protection so that he can hear Allaah’s speech.” (Soorah Tawbah, (9): 6) “Blessed is He who sent the Distinction [Qur’aan] down to His slave.” (Soorah al-Furqaan, (25): 1) “That is Allaah’s command which He revealed to you.” (Soorah at-Talaaq, (65): 5) “It is not befitting for Allaah to speak to a human except in the form of revelation or from behind a veil.” (Soorah ash-Shooraa, (42): 51); “In that way We revealed to you a spirit (Qur’aan) from Our command.” (Soorah ash-Shooraa,(42): 52) “And when Moses came to Our appointed place and his Lord spoke to him.” (Soorah al-A‘raaf, (7):143) “O Moses. Indeed I have chosen you among people to [receive] my messages and speech.” (Soorah al-A‘raaf, (7): 144) “When he came there [a voice] called out to him [saying]: O Moses, indeed I am your Lord.” (Soorah Taahaa, (20): 11-12); “And I have chosen you so listen to what is revealed.” (Soorah Taa Haa, (20): 13) “Indeed it is I, Allaah, there is no God worthy of worship besides Me. So worship Me.” (Soorah Taahaa, (20): 14) ‘Could they not see that it neither answered them, nor that it had no power to harm or benefit them?’ (20:89). “And Allaah actually spoke to Moses.” (Soorah an-Nisaa, (4): 164); “Among them are those to whom Allaah spoke.” (Soorah al-Baqarah, (2): 263);
Thus, Among the speech of Allaah is the Magnificent Qur’aan. It is Allaah’s Clear Revelation, His Firm Rope, His Straight Path. It was sent down by the Lord of All the Worlds, carried by the Trusted Spirit [Gabriel] to the heart of the Master of the Messengers, in clear Arabic tongue, revealed uncreated, originating from Him and returning to Him.
Allah, Most Glorified, will speak to the believers on the Last Day and they will speak to Him.
Taken the book “Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad’ (Radiance of Faith) written by Imam Ibn Qudamah Al Maqdisi and commentary by Imam Ibn Uthaymeen and Dr. Bilal Philips.
- Qur’an: Definition of the Term (muddaththir.wordpress.com)