Qadr is the ordaining of things according to the knowledge Allah has of them.
It involves the following principles:
1. Allah knows things before they come into existence. This means that His knowledge is eternal. This statement is a refutation of those who deny that His knowledge is eternal.
2. Fore-ordainment (taqdeer ) is to fix the measures of things, namely the properties and attributes that they will have.
Allah has said: “He created everything and destined its measure.” (Soorah al-Furqaan, : 2)
This means that creation involves two kinds of pre-measurement: ordaining things as such or fixing their measures, and doing so before they come into existence. Since Allah has fixed the measures of things in all their details, qualitative and quantitative, His knowledge of each and every individual thing is perfect. Hence, those who think that Allah knows only the generalities and not the particulars are wrong. Qadr involves eternal knowledge as it involves the knowledge of each and every individual thing. [In trying to reconcile Allaah’s knowledge of the future and human free will, Allamah Muhammad Iqbal fell into this pit of denying an aspect of Allaah’s knowledge. He stated in his book Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, (p. 79) that “The future certainly pre-exists in the organic whole of God’s creative life, but it pre-exists as an open possibility not as a fixed order of events with definite outlines … No doubt the emergence of egos endowed with the power to spontaneous and hence unforeseeable action is, in a sense, a limitation on the freedom of the all-inclusive Ego (i.e., Allah). But this limitation is not externally imposed. It is born out of His own creative freedom whereby He has chosen finite egos to be participators of His life power and freedom.”]
3. Qadr means that Allah reveals detailed information about things before their creation.
Therefore, it is not ruled out that some of His servants may know about various things before they are brought into existence – if Allah chooses to inform them. This further enforces the truth that their Creator must be even more knowledgeable about them. If He has informed His servants about them, He cannot Himself lack that knowledge.
4. Allah is free to decide what to do, or to create what He wills, and nothing is incumbent or obligatory upon Him.
5. Finally, it means that the things that He ordains are contingent, i.e., that they come into being after they were not there. He first determines their measures and then creates them.”
(Commentary on the Creed of at-Tahawi, pp. 219-220)
There are two main groups who erred in Qadaa and Qadr.
1. The Jabrites who claimed that the creature is forced to do its acts without any choice on its part.
They are refuted by two points:
a) Allah attributed human acts to them and made them earning for which they are rewarded or punished. If they were forced to do them, the attribution of the acts to them would not be correct and punishment for them would be oppression.
b) Everyone knows the difference between an act of choice and a forced act in reality and in judgment. So if someone transgressed against another and claimed that he was forced to do it by Allaah’s Qadaa and Qadr it would be considered stupidity, contradicting what is known by necessity.
2. The Qadrites who claim that the creature is independent in its actions and that Allah has no will or power or creation in it.
Their claim is also refuted by two points:
a) Their claim contradicts Allaah’s statements: “Allaah is the creator of everything.” (Soorah az-Zumar, : 62) “And Allah created you and what you do.” (Soorah as-Saaffaat, : 96)
b) Allah is the owner of the heavens and earth. How is it possible that there be in His dominion things which are not dependent on His will and creation? (Sharh Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, pp. 96-7)
ALLAH KNOWS THE BEST
- 150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr) (islaamiccreed.wordpress.com)
- 153. Levels of belief in Qadar (islaamiccreed.wordpress.com)
- The Supplication and Al-Qadar (xeniagreekmuslimah.wordpress.com)