In my Islamic Studies in the University founded by Sheikh Dr. Bilal Philips, in our subject Aqeedah Part 2, the book referred for our studies is ‘Commentary on Ibn Qudaamah’s RADIANCE OF FAITH by Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips’.
We were introduced to few authentic hadeeth by the author, which i believe many are not aware of and i assumed it is my responsibility to share this as a notes, so that it can benefit others in terms of hadeeth as well as research. Wish Allah show us the right path.
The author has provided the following in his book and the commentaries,
Prophet Muhammad pbuh said, “The caliphate after me will be for thirty years…”
Narrated by Safeenah Aboo ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, freed slave of the Prophet (r) and collected in Sunan Abu Dawud, at-Tirmithee, and an-Nasaa’ee and authenticated in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah, no. 459.
The full text of the hadeeth is as follows:
Safeenah quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r) as saying: “The Prophetic Caliphate will be for thirty years. Then Allaah will give dominion to whomever He pleases.” Safeenah said to Sa‘eed [the sub-narrator], hold two years for Aboo Bakr, ten for ‘Umar, twelve for ‘Uthmaan and like that for ‘Alee.” Sa‘eed said: “I told Safeenah that those people claim that ‘Alee – peace be on him – was not a Caliph.” He replied: “… lie the tribe of az-Zarqaa – i.e., the tribe of Marwaan.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 3, p. 1303, no. 4629 and authenticated in Saheeh al-Jaami‘, no. 3257.)
Safeenah quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r) as saying: “Caliphate will remain in my nation for thirty years then kingship after that.” Then Safeenah said to me: “Hold the caliphate of Aboo Bakr, that of ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan and the caliphate of ‘Alee.” Sa‘eed said: “We found it to be thirty years! I said to him: The Umayyad tribe claim that there is caliphate among them.” He replied: “The Zarqaa tribe lie. They are kings from among the worst of kings.”(Sunan at-Tirmithee, vol. 3, no. 2326 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmithee, no. 1813)
The author, Ibn Qudaamah, either followed these general statements in which the caliphate of al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee is considered a part of his father’s caliphate, or he did not consider it a caliphate since he abdicated from it. However, careful addition of the duration of these caliphates indicates that the Prophet’s prophesy of thirty years of caliphate only comes true if the six months duration of al-Hasan ibn ‘Alee’s caliphate is included.
1. Khilafat of Aboo Bakr (RA) – 2years 3months 9days (13 Rabi-Awal 11AH to 22 Jumadaa Aakhirah 13AH)
2. Khilafat of Umar (RA) – 10years 6months 3days (23 Jumaadaa Aakhirah 13AH to 26 Thul Hijjah 23 AH)
3. Khilafat of Uthmaan (RA) – 12years 0months 12days (1 Muharram 24AH to 18 Thul Hijjah 35 AH)
4. Khilafat of Ali (RA) – 4years 9months 0days (19 Thul Hijjah 35 AH to 19 Ramadaan 40 AH)
Considering these 4 khilafat rule total khilafat period comes to 29years 6months 4days
Adding the khiliafat of Al-Hasan,
5. Al-Hasan – 0years 6months 0days (19 Ramadaan 40 AH to Rabee‘ al-Awwal 41 AH)
Al-Hasan’s caliphate completed the thirty years predicted by the Prophet (r) and his abdication fulfilled the other prophesy concerning al-Hasan ibn ‘Alee:
Aboo Bakrah said: I heard the Prophet (r) talking at the pulpit while al-Hasan was sitting beside him. He would look at the people one time and at al-Hasan one time, and he said: “This son of mine is a leader, and perhaps Allaah will bring about an agreement between two sects of Muslims through him.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 66, no. 89.)